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Primitiv tipli dəyişənlər nədir və nə üçün lazımdır?

Unity can work with 3D models of any shape that can be created with modelling software. However, there are also a number of primitive object types that can be created directly within Unity, namely the Cube, Sphere, Capsule, Cylinder, Plane and Quad. These objects are often useful in their own right (a plane is commonly used as a flat ground surface, for example) but they also offer a quick way to create placeholders and prototypes for testing purposes. Any of the primitives can be added to the scene using the appropriate item on the GameObject > 3D Object menu.

primitiv nədir


This is a simple cylinder which is two units high and one unit in diameter, textured so that the image wraps once around the tube shape of the body but also appears separately in the two flat, circular ends. Cylinders are very handy for creating posts, rods and wheels but you should note that the shape of the collider is actually a capsule (there is no primitive cylinder collider in Unity). You should create a mesh of the appropriate shape in a modelling program and attach a mesh collider if you need an accurate cylindrical collider for physics purposes.

This is a flat square with edges ten units long oriented in the XZ plane of the local coordinate space. It is textured so that the whole image appears exactly once within the square. A plane is useful for most kinds of flat surface, such as floors and walls. A surface is also needed sometimes for showing images or movies in GUI and special effects. Although a plane can be used for things like this, the simpler quad primitive is often a more natural fit to the task.

The primitive node (or primitive knot) is the organizer for gastrulation in most amniote embryos. In birds it is known as Hensen's node, and in amphibians it is known as the Spemann-Mangold organizer. It is induced by the Nieuwkoop center in amphibians, or by the posterior marginal zone in amniotes including birds.

In chick development, the primitive node starts as a regional knot of cells that forms on the blastodisc immediately anterior to where the outer layer of cells will begin to migrate inwards - an area known as the primitive streak, which is involved with Koller's sickle. When the primitive streak is approaching its full length (almost 2 mm), the tip, now designated Hensens node, forms a novel compact assembly of cells. From here cells continue to emigrate and become replaced from the surrounding epiblast. The center of Hensen's node contains a funnel-shaped depression, the primitive pit, where the cells of the epiblast (the upper layer of embryonic cells) initially begin to invaginate. This invagination expands posteriorly into the primitive groove as the cell layers continue to move into the space between the embryonic cells and the yolk. This differentiates the embryo into the three germ layers - endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. The primitive node migrates posteriorly as gastrulation proceeds, eventually being absorbed into the tail bud.

primitiv tipli dəyişənlər nədir

primitiv tipli dəyişənlərin xüsusiyyətləri

primitiv və referans tipli dəyişənlər arasındakı fərqlər

primitiv cinslər nədir

primitiv cinslərin təsnifatı

primitiv cinslərin təbiətdə yayılması

primitiv insanlar nədir

primitiv insanların mədəniyyəti

primitiv insanların həyat tərzləri

primitiv insanların inancları

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primitiv funksiyanın müqayisəsi

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primitiv funksiyanın integralı

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primitiv kök nədir

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primitiv kökün Ədilin teoremi ilə əlaqəsi

primitiv qrup nədir

primitiv qrupun tapanması

primitiv qrupun xüsusiyyetlari

primitiv qrupun altqrupları

primitiv qrupun normal altqrupları

primitiv sanat nedi̇r

primiti̇v sanatın özelli̇kleri̇

pri̇miti̇v sanatın örneklėri̇

pri̇miti̇v sanatın geli̇şi̇mi̇

pri̇miti̇v sanatın çağdaş sanata etki̇si̇

pri̇miti̇v dini̇n nedi̇r

pri̇miti̇v dini̇n özelli̇kleri̇

pri̇miti̇v dini̇n i̇nançları

pri̇miti̇v dini̇n ri̇tüelleri

pri̇miti̇v dini̇n kaynakları

pri̇miti̇v toplum nedi̇r

pri̇miti̇v toplumun özelli̇kleri̇

pri̇miti̇v toplumun yapısı

pri̇miti̇v toplumun ekonomisi

pri̇miti̇v toplumun siyaseti

pri̇miti̇v kültür nedi̇r

pri̇miti̇v kültürün özelli̇kleri

pri̇miti̇v kültürün kaynakları

pri̇miti̇v kültürün gelişmesine etken olan faktörler

pri̇miti̇v kültürün çağdaş kültürle ilişkisi

The cells of the primitive node secrete many cellular signals essential for neural differentiation. After gastrulation the developing embryo is divided into ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. The ectoderm gives rise to epithelial and neural tissue, with neural tissue being the default cell fate. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) suppress neural differentiation and promote epithelial growth. Therefore, the primitive node (the dorsal lip of the blastopore) secretes BMP antagonists, including noggin, chordin, and follistatin. The node gives rise to the prechordal mesoderm, notochord and medial part of the somites.

The next cells entering through Hensen's node also move anteriorly, but they do not travel as far ventrally as the presumptive foregut endodermal cells. Rather, they remain between the endoderm and the epiblast to form the prechordal plate mesoderm. Thus, the head of the avian embryo forms anterior (rostral) to Hensen's node.[4] The next cells passing through Hensen's node become the chordamesoderm. The chordamesoderm has two components: the head process and the notochord. The most anterior part, the head process, is formed by central mesoderm cells migrating anteriorly, behind the prechordal plate mesoderm and toward the rostral tip of the embryo. The head process will underlie those cells that will form the forebrain and midbrain. As the primitive streak regresses, the cells deposited by the regressing Hensen's node will become the notochord in a process called neurulation.[4]

In contrast, HNF-3b is expressed in the entire mass of cells situated within the median pit and extending about 70 mm posteriorly. Both Shh and HNF-3b transcripts are found in the notochord and the floor plate rostral to the node, and they are completely absent in the lateral and caudal neural plate and the primitive streak. In the node proper, the chordin expression pattern is very similar to that of HNF-3b, but more rostrally, chordin is no longer expressed in the floor plate is predominantly expressed in the ventral part of the node.[5]

Comparison of the expression patterns of these different genes and of the cellular arrangement in the node region leds to the definition of three zones. Anteriorly (zone a), the derivatives of the node that express HNF-3b and Shh (notochord and floor plate) are separated by forming basement membrane but are closely associated. In the area of the median pit (zone b), the future floor plate can be distinguished by a columnar arrangement of its cells. Underneath this forming epithelial layer, the presumptive notochordal cells are randomly and loosely arranged. HNF-3b and Shh are both expressed in this region, which constitutes the bulk of the node. Caudal to the border of the median pit, the cells of the node that express HNF-3b but not Shh (zone c) are closely packed without exhibiting any epithelial arrangement. Interestingly, the HNF-3b- and Ch-Tbx6L-expressing areas, forming respectively the caudal HN and the tip of the primitive streak (TPS), do not overlap.[5]

Persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) is one of the persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. It is present in 0.1-0.6% of cerebral angiograms and is usually unilateral.

In Marxian economics and preceding theories,[1] the problem of primitive accumulation (also called previous accumulation, prior accumulation, or original accumulation) of capital concerns the origin of capital and therefore how class distinctions between possessors and non-possessors came to be.

Adam Smith's account of primitive-original accumulation depicted a peaceful process in which some workers laboured more diligently than others and gradually built up wealth, eventually leaving the less diligent workers to accept living wages for their labour.[2] Karl Marx rejected this account as "childish" for its omission of the role of violence, war, enslavement, and colonialism in the historical accumulation of land and wealth. Marxist scholar David Harvey explains Marx's primitive accumulation as a process which principally "entailed taking land, say, enclosing it, and expelling a resident population to create a landless proletariat, and then releasing the land into the privatized mainstream of capital accumulation".[3]

The concept was initially referred to in various different ways, and the expression of an "accumulation" at the origin of capitalism began to appear with Adam Smith.[4] Smith, writing The Wealth of Nations in his native English, spoke of a "previous" accumulation;[5] Karl Marx, writing Das Kapital in German, reprised Smith's expression, by translating it to German as ursprünglich ("original, initial"); Marx's translators, in turn, rendered it into English as primitive.[1] James Steuart, with his 1767 work, is considered by some scholars to be the greatest classical theorist of primitive accumulation.[6]

This primitive accumulation plays in political economy about the same part as original sin in theology. Adam bit the apple, and thereupon sin fell on the human race. Its origin is supposed to be explained when it is told as an anecdote of the past. In times long gone-by there were two sorts of people; one, the diligent, intelligent, and, above all, frugal elite; the other, lazy rascals, spending their substance, and more, in riotous living. (...) Thus it came to pass that the former sort accumulated wealth, and the latter sort had at last nothing to sell except their own skins. And from this original sin dates the poverty of the great majority that, despite all its labour, has up to now nothing to sell but itself, and the wealth of the few that increases constantly although they have long ceased to work. Such childishness is every day preached to us in the defence of property.

The discovery of gold and silver in America, the extirpation, enslavement and entombment in mines of the aboriginal population, the beginning of the conquest and looting of the East Indies, the turning of Africa into a warren for the commercial hunting of black-skins, signaled the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production. These idyllic proceedings are the chief moments of primitive accumulation. On their heels treads the commercial war of the European nations, with the globe for a theatre. It begins with the revolt of the Netherlands from Spain, assumes giant dimensions in England's Anti-Jacobin War, and is still going on in the opium wars against China, &c.The different moments of primitive accumulation distribute themselves now, more or less in chronological order, particularly over Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, and England. In England at the end of the 17th century, they arrive at a systematical combination, embracing the colonies, the national debt, the modern mode of taxation, and the protectionist system. These methods depend in part on brute force, e.g., the colonial system. But, they all employ the power of the state, the concentrated and organized force of society, to hasten, hot-house fashion, the process of transformation of the feudal mode of production into the capitalist mode, and to shorten the transition. Force is the midwife of every old society pregnant with a new one. It is itself an economic power.


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